technologies are now able to work with
a range of technologies which contribute
to improving indoor air quality. Additional
benefits include an increase in cooperative
membership and an increase in knowledge
of management skills, which has improved
overall performance, including developing
connections with various district stakeholders.
Of the 50 local artisans initially trained to
fabricate and install smoke hoods, 23 have
adopted smoke hoods supply businesses,
with the hope that these manufacturers will
establish or expand on smoke hood manufacturing workshops. And a market-based
institutional delivery system was established
to ensure quality and a continuous supply of
smoke hoods. Local quality control mechanisms have been established to ensure high
quality is maintained via warrantee cards.
AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS
Since the smoke hoods have a long lifespan,
the need for manufacturers to install them
will gradually diminish over time, as many of
those trained to do installations are restricted
by the physical distance between themselves
and new markets. A solution from Practical
Action is to manufacture the smoke hoods in
a central workshop and train local builders to
assemble “flat-pack” versions of the hoods.
This would allow less skilled people to install
the hoods wherever they might be needed,
but not leave the original manufacturers
unemployed once all the villagers had them
in their homes, as the manufacturers would
have smoke-hood construction as part of a
set of skills rather than just one specific skill.
One issue with scaling up the project is
that since smoke hoods are not stoves, it has
proven difficult to raise their profile within the
international arena and convey the fact that
a smoke hood plus an improved stove can be
a very effective combination, or that a smoke
hood on its own can contribute to improved
indoor air quality. The name has recently been
changed to “hoodstoves” in an attempt to
define the technology in a single word, but the
challenge of raising their profile is ongoing. •
Bates, L. (2005), Smoke, health and household energy, Vol. 1:
participatory methods for design, installation, monitoring and
assessment of smoke alleviation technologies, PAC, Rugby, UK.
Practical Action Nepal Office (2013), Healthy Hoods project:
pilot testing and dissemination in Nepal project completion report,
Practical Action, Kathmandu, Nepal.
Ballard-Tremeer, G. (1997) Emissions of Rural Wood-Burning
Cooking Devices. University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.
• Cooking technologies need to fit local
socio-cultural, economic and cooking
needs in order for them to be accepted.
• Designs need to be simple enough to be
• Working with early adopters is very
important in creating demand. Installing
smoke hoods in community leaders’
homes provided an opportunity for other
residents to observe the benefits of the
hoods. This in turn triggered an increase
in demand of the hoods.
• Mobilization of female community health
volunteers was very helpful in disseminating
messages across rural communities.
• Coordination with local development
organizations was vital to the success of
• Integrated actions involving public-private partnerships are required for the
scaling-up of clean energy technologies,
including microfinancing models,
innovative social marketing, local
manufacturing, and strong supply chains.
• Working with a community on tackling
a problem and being willing to test
different ideas makes it much more
likely that the community will adopt the
technology, as long as the technology
addresses the communities' needs in a
way that’s agreeable to them. It is their
needs, their choices, their homes, their
money — it has to be their solution.
TABLE 1: Indoor carbon monoxide (ppm)
measurements averaged over 24 hours
PPM AFTER INTERVENTION
PPM BEFORE INTERVENTION